In support of the summer-long celebration of the 350th anniversary of the Turner-Ingersoll Mansion in Salem, better known as the House of the Seven Gables, Salem State has offered up a Hawthorne film series in partnership with the Salem Maritime National Historic Site and this week our last film will be shown: Twice-Told Tales (1963). Since we started with The House of the Seven Gables (1940), it will be interesting to see Vincent Price, who played Clifford in that film in a rather straightforward fashion, in what I assume will be his more characteristic over-the-top style. He plays key characters in all three stories of this anthology film, and Dr. Rappaccini himself in the central story, Rappaccini’s Daughter, which just happens to be my favorite Hawthorne short story (it was actually first published in book form in Mosses from an Old Manse rather than Twice Told Tales, but I’m sure this was of no concern to Hollywood). Rappaccini’s Daughter is the favorite Hawthorne tale of many, and it has inspired many visual and literary impressions and adaptations—particularly in the last decade or so. Its allegory makes it endlessly captivating for successive generations, but I think its most recent popularity is due to its rather macabre storyline: the transformation of a young beautiful woman who tends a garden of poisonous plants and in doing so becomes both immune but also a poisonous vessel herself is Gothic in the extreme.
Jesse Willcox Smith, 1900
My particular fascination is the paradox of beauty and toxicity in nature. How can plants as beautiful as monkshood and foxglove be deadly? I have neither in my garden at present, but my very first garden at this house was comprised entirely of plants used in the medieval and early modern eras as plague cures. It did not last long, as most of these plants were really unattractive and I didn’t have quite enough sun for them anyway, so I dug it up and dispersed the more attractive plants in a more conventional flower garden. My favorite survivor of the “plague garden” is rue, a beautiful and ethereal blue-ish gray shrub with yellow flowers that I just sheared off yesterday, with not a care in the world for the potential harm that its leaves could have caused to my skin. How could the “Herb of Grace” cause harm? Obviously it’s not the plant itself but ignorance of its “attributes”; it’s not the medicine but the dose. It’s not nature; it’s man (or woman).
My newly-shorn rue and its illustration in my favorite Renaissance herbal, that of Giovanni Cadamosto (late 15th Century, British Library MS Harley 3736); A much more OBVIOUS poisonous plant in my garden, baneberry or Actaea Rubra: beware of those berries!
Even more paradoxical than a poisonous plant is a poisonous garden, as gardens are supposed to be places of rest, relaxation, wonder and contemplation: sanctuaries where one can find refuge from the busy (and threatening) world outside. Rappaccini’s Daughter is set in Padua, so I believe that Hawthorne was likely influenced by its famous Botanical Garden, established in 1545 and still thriving with over 7000 plant varieties including a collection of poisonous plants, “which are also in the medicinal plants sector because in suitable quantities they can be used to treat illness and diseases”. Also didactic, but a bit more menacing, is the Duchess of Northumbria’s Poison Garden in Alnwick, England, which features more than 100 lethal plants, several of which are in cages, all just part of a much larger botanical attraction and experience. The Duchess wanted to pique the curiosity of children in horticulture, and it probably doesn’t hurt that her estate “starred” as Hogwarts in the first two Harry Potter films. She also produced a series of books for children titled The Poison Diaries, the first of which has absolutely amazing illustrations by Colin Stimpson of venomous plants “in character”. Scary, but not nearly as scary as the Poison Tree which “stole” into William Blake’s garden, his own creation.
Alnwick’s Poison Garden; a Colin Stimpson illustration from the Poison Diaries; William Blake’s Poison Tree from Songs of Experience, 1794, British Museum.
July 22nd, 2018 at 7:12 pm
A great article! The Alnwick Poison Garden is something special, too. After all, it’s not every garden where the gardener(s) dress in hazmat suits. Lol!
July 22nd, 2018 at 8:47 pm
We visited a poison garden a few years ago at Blarney Castle in Ireland. I had never heard of a poison garden until that time.
July 23rd, 2018 at 9:06 am
A gruesome Blake poem I did not know. Thank you.
July 23rd, 2018 at 9:33 am
Too bad the book isn’t available anymore. For a fantasy writer like me, it’s ideas like a poison garden that are ripe (pun intended) for stories!
July 24th, 2018 at 11:26 am
Unfortunately, I do not have your email so I am resorting to asking you a question via your comments page – my apologies! We met a few years ago through my cousin Becky Putnam. I am writing because tI found a photograph of a doorway, 99% likely to be in Salem, and mislabeled, I believe, as 1 Broad Street. I am Descended from the Eden family which owned 40 Summer St./1 Broad Street, which is the same building. Although the photo is labeled on the back as 1Broad Street it does not match those doorways at all and I highly doubt they were altered. My guess is that the photo may be of 21 Norman Street where my relatives Cox family lived. Could you send me your email so I could send you this photograph? I wouldn’t need you to spend much time on it but just to direct me to someone or a book where I could look to identify it. Thank you so much. I hope you’re having a nice summer and best wishes, Kathy Greenough
July 24th, 2018 at 11:43 am
Sure Kathy, and of course I remember you! Best to contact me at my ssu email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
July 28th, 2018 at 7:44 pm
Thanks for another great piece. Love that portrait of Jesse Wilcox Smith. Looks something like a Johns Singer Sargent.
I must confess to not having read “Rappaccini’s Daughter,” but I always associate Hawthorne’s knowledge of herbs & potions with the nefarious Chillingworth in THE SCARLET LETTER.