There were two prompts for today’s post, both of which came as I was getting ready for the spring semester, after a productive sabbatical in which I thought and wrote very little about Salem’s history. The first prompt was the wonderful recognition of the work of one of my colleagues, Dr. Bethany Jay, whose book (co-edited with Dr. Cynthia Lynn Lyerly of Boston College) Understanding and Teaching American Slavery won the prestigious James Harvey Robinson prize for the “most outstanding contribution to the teaching and learning of history in any field for public or educational purposes” at this year’s annual meeting of the American Historical Association. The second prompt came from a former student of mine, now an archivist-in-training and public historian-by-passion, inquired as to the location of the remains of the burial ground of Salem’s Bulfinch-designed Almshouse on Salem Neck, a property which is now the site of a 1980s condominium development. I looked through the usual sources to try to help her, but then (as usual), got distracted: by this obituary in the Liberator, dated April 30, 1836.
Here we can read of the death of a long-time resident of the Almshouse, centengenarian Flora Jeans, an African-American woman who was once the widow of Bristow Hunt, a slave belonging to Capt. Wm. Hunt, who resided at the corner of Lynde Street. At the time of the general emancipation of the slaves in New England, Bristow partook of the sweets of freedom, in common with others of his race, and in the elevation of his feelings consequent on his being placed on a level with his fellow men, he nobly fought for the liberties of his country and was killed in battle by the side of a connection of his master’s family, who is now living. Sigh. Yet another amazing Salem story, drawing me back in: this city’s African-American history, as well as its revolutionary history, and its nineteenth-century history, and virtually all of its history, is so minimized and marginalized because of the incessant drumbeat: 1692, 1692, 1692, 1692, 1692, 1692, 1692, 1692, 1692, 1692, 1692, 1692. 1692, 1692.
The paint-on-silk “Bucks of America” flag in the collection of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 1785-86, commemorating what is “believed to have been a Massachusetts militia company composed of African Americans and operating in Boston during the American Revolution, although no official records of the unit seem to exist”.
I don’t know much about American history; I began this blog partly because I wanted to learn more about Salem’s history because it seemed so overwhelmingly focused on the Witch Trials and I was curious about other eras and institutions. The last time I studied American history was in high school, where I can assure you I learned nothing about slavery and its myriad consequences. I avoided American history in college studiously, because it seemed so short and one-dimensional compared to the European and Asian history (I didn’t even think about African history). By the time I finished my doctoral program and started teaching I had learned a lot about slavery in the early modern Atlantic world, or about the slave trade, and I assumed that it formed a larger part of the secondary-school curriculum than when I was in high school. But that’s not the case, even now. Dr. Jay consulted with the Southern Poverty Law Center on their Teaching Toleration project, which surveyed 1000 American high-school seniors, 1700 history teachers, along with popular textbooks and state standards, in 2017 about their knowledge and presentation of slavery. The results were alarming, to say the least, and really surprising to me, although I suspect not as surprising to my Americanist colleagues: only 8% of high-school seniors identified slavery as the cause of the Civil War, few than one-third identified the 13th amendment as the formal end of slavery in the United States, and less than half could define the “Middle Passage”. Eight percent.
I feel fortunate to have learned a lot about slavery—its structures, consequences, and abolition—from my colleagues as well as my students. It’s not an easy subject; I really would prefer to look at our founding fathers as heroes rather than hypocrites, believe me (but Martin Luther and both Cromwells are troublesome creatures too). I teach our capstone seminar, in which students write long research papers over the course of the semester, pretty regularly, and I let students choose whatever topic they like, within reason and with my qualifications. Because Dr. Jay is such a popular professor, I’ve supervised papers on slave children, anti-slavery societies, the circumstances surrounding the abolition of slavery in Massachusetts, and The Liberator, among other related topics. So I’m not surprised to see such a detailed obituary of a poor African-American woman in 1836. Another popular professor in our department is Dr. Dane Morrison, who teaches the Colonial and Federal eras: he has inspired a full range of Revolutionary topics in my seminars, including one on African-American soldiers who fought for the American side despite the enticements of the British. So I’m not surprised to read about Bristow Hunt either: despite the flowery rhetoric in the obituary, I assume he was offered manumission in exchange for his military service, rather than absolutely, as slavery was not formally abolished in Massachusetts (by judicial review) until 1783. I don’t really know this to have been the case, but the fact that he died by the side of a connection of his master’s family is pretty telling. I wish I knew more about Bristow—and Flora—and their lives rather than just their deaths. I wish we all knew more about them, and I’m a bit embarrassed of my previous preoccupation on the house in which Bristow and others were enslaved. I’ve always been fascinated by this first-period house, which was demolished during the Civil War. It survives in paintings and photographs, neither of which offer us any insights into what went on inside.
Circa 1857 photograph of the Hunt House in Frank Cousins’ and Phil Riley’s Colonial Architecture in Salem (1919); undated drawing, Historic New England.
The antiquarian approach focuses on the house, on physical remainders rather than social history. So I was being an antiquarian, just like Sidney Perley, who wrote in the Essex Antiquarian [Volume II, 1898] that William Hunt (whom he does not call Captain) died in 1780 possessed of the “mansion house”, bake house, barn and lot; in the division of his real estate in 1782, the buildings and eastern portion of the lot were assigned to his son Lewis Hunt [who was] a baker, and had his shop in the front end of the house”. When William Hunt died in 1780, slavery was still technically legal in Massachusetts despite its brand-new constitution’s provision that “all men are born free and equal, and have….the right of enjoying and defending their lives and liberties”. And in the early 1770s, when the public discourse calling for freedom and condemning tyranny was intense and incessant, he placed a series of advertisements in the Salem papers offering a reward for the return of another of his slaves, Cato. This much we do know.
Essex Gazette, May 28, 1771.
January 8th, 2019 at 10:09 am
Love this. First comment is to also include enslaved Native Americans in our new understanding of who built this country. Second: I have always been fascinated by Salem’s John Remond who presumably began his life as a slave, or the son of an enslaved woman, in Curacao. Somehow he was able to secure passage up to Boston on a ship and then embarked on the life of an entrepreneur businessperson in Salem where he was a one-man walking restaurant/food services tycoon. With his wife Nancy, of course. who probably cooked all the gigantic meals they served at Hamilton Hall. Who was this guy really? How did he get passage to Boston? Who was his father? Why was he able to corner the catering business for all the best and most prestigious events in Salem? All the while his children were not accepted as equals and had to obtain their schooling in Newport.How humiliating for their parents.Did any of the Remond children settle in Salem? I think they all left, and I wonder why.
January 8th, 2019 at 10:13 am
I think I’ve written all I know about the Remonds here, and there’s a great article at the AAS, but I am supervising an intern who will be researching the family for Hamilton Hall this semester, so maybe we’ll learn more.
January 8th, 2019 at 7:51 pm
Thanks for this fascinating post. I was really taken aback by how little contemporary high schoolers know about the history of slavery in this country, not to mention our state. I remember having my eyes opened to the fact that black soldiers both free and enslaved participated in the Revolutionary war. It was only about twenty years ago, and I am 70. It opened my mind and eyes to search for the presence of blacks throughout our history and its presentation.
We need many more people to know the history of blacks in America from the 17th century through the Great Migration north and west beginning in the Jim Crow years to current times. Knowing this history will hopefully lead us to greater understanding, acceptance, and inclusion of all Americans in all aspects of life in this state and country.
January 8th, 2019 at 8:42 pm
Donna, thanks for such an interesting piece, supported as always with your gift for archival retrieval. According to our historian Thomas Wellman, one of our early Harvard ministers in Lynnfield owned two slaves in the same period. Sorry, I forget which one …
January 8th, 2019 at 9:15 pm
I know; we all have to reconcile our respect for the past with this horrific institution–somehow I thought we had, but we have not.
January 10th, 2019 at 9:19 am
Have you by chance read Sean Wilentz’s Kingdom of Matthias https://www.nytimes.com/1994/07/05/books/books-of-the-times-an-unbalanced-guide-on-the-road-to-paradise.html While at first glance seemingly unrelated to slavery, it has an amazing denouement involving a famous former African slave. It’s a ‘story from the archives’ kind of book too, which I love.
January 11th, 2019 at 7:58 am
I haven’t, Laura! Thanks for the recommendation.