In Salem, December 5 has been celebrated as krampusnacht more often than St. Nicholas’s Eve over the past few years, but I’m following up on a post about the latter today. I want to connect the forerunner of Santa Klaus to pawnbrokers, through the symbolism of three golden balls. This is not an original association, but a reader referenced it several years ago, and I always wanted to connect the dots, so this day seems like a perfect time to do it! I think that the traditional pawnbrokers’ sign of three golden balls attached to a (straight or curved) bar is recognized universally in the west, or at least in Europe: here’s a John Crowther watercolor of Aldersgate Street in London in 1886 with both a traditional symbolic trade sign and a sign of the trade sign, and a photograph from Jeremiah’s Vanishing New York of an old pawnbroker’s sign that is apparently about to vanish—it might be already gone.
John Crowther, Aldersgate Street, London, 1886, Guildhall Library; the trade signs of the defunct S&G Gross Pawnbrokers in New York City from Vanishing New York.
Nearly everyone traces the origins of the three balls back to the Medici family for several reasons: the Medici crest features balls (palle) prominently, their financial roles in Renaissance Europe, which can somehow (not at all clear to me) serve as a predecessor for pawnbroking, and the fact that they were Italian, like the Lombards who became the first Christian moneylenders in medieval Europe, when usury (charging interest for a loan of money) was expressly against canon law. There is also an old yarn about a monster, Charlemagne, and the balls representing defensive dings in a shield, adopted by the Medici as proof of their valor, but I don’t think I need to delve too deeply into that tale. The Medici had as many as twelve balls on their crests before the fifteenth century, when they finally settled on six. Not three.
The Medici Crest with its distinctive six palle on the leaf of a 15th Century MS of Propertius, Elegies, Oxford University Bodleian Library MS Canon. Class. Lat 31.
Paolo Veneziano, The Charity of St. Nicholas, 1430-45, Galleria degli Uffizi; Girolamo Macchietti, The Charity of St. Nicholas of Bari, c. 1555-1560; National Gallery of Art, London; Taddeo Crivelli, St. Nicholas, 1469, J. Paul Getty Museum; Sebald Beham, Saint Nicholas, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
This same period is also one in which public institutional charitable funds emerged, first the famous Monte delle doti, which enabled Florentine fathers to invest in the city’s public-funded debt and ensure a sufficient dowry when their daughters were of marriageable age, and later in the fifteenth century the Monte di pietà, a form of public-administered pawnbroking designed to provide an alternative to avaricious private moneylending. The Florentine state, and other states as well, were quite willing to engage in official lending, especially if it could finance its public debt and alleviate a pressing social concern at the same time. With its system of collateralized lending and low interest rates, the Monte di pietà, in particular, represented a beneficial Christian form of lending in contrast to the old Lombard system, inspired and reflected by all those images of the three-ball-bearing St. Nicholas, who eventually became the patron saint of pawnbrokers.
Coat of St. Nicholas on the Christ Church gate of Canterbury Cathedral, @Neil Holmes; Leslie Jones photograph of Boston pawn shop signs in the 1920s, Boston Public Library.
December 5th, 2017 at 8:28 am
Good post, Donna. One question: what aspect the connection between traditional bank finance and pawnbrokerage is unclear? Both offer collaterlized lending. And is it possible that the charity was either in the rates charged (Medicis, I believe, charged high rates) or the clientele they served (in their heyday, the Medici Bank was mostly for royalty, or at least the upper class)? Just speculating. Cheers,
December 5th, 2017 at 8:51 am
Maybe I didn’t express it correctly because I always get a bit fuzzy when discussing high finance, but the Medici were engaging in much more intricate- and high-stakes lending than simple pawnbrokers, and as you state–with much more elevated clients, like the Pope.
December 5th, 2017 at 12:34 pm
I was very interested in your post on St. Nicholas and the three golden balls. I have just finished reading “Nicholas: The Epic Journey from Saint to Santa Claus” by Jeremy Seal. It was all about St. Nicholas, his charity of the 3 round purses anonymously in the middle of the night so a poor man’s daughters would have dowries, as well as his relics being transported from Myra to Constantinople, to Bari, and then parts of his skeleton being taken to churches farther north and west along with the iconography of the three balls. Then finally, how he was transformed into Santa Claus. It was a fascinating story, and the second non-fiction book I’ve read by Jeremy Seal, whose writing I’ve really enjoyed. Happy St. Nicholas Eve.
December 5th, 2017 at 2:15 pm
Thanks for the recommendation!