I have been so impressed with the World War One centenary commemoration initiatives both in Europe (where they have been going on since 2014) and the United States (more recent initiatives, organized by towns, states, and the national Centennial Commission): poppies and lights galore, a real focus on humanity, and that amazing “We’re Here because We’re Here” living history event, which makes me cry every time I see more than one minute of video—nope, make that 30 seconds. Of course the commemoration has been more intense in Europe because the loss was more intense, but there have been some impressive American initiatives too: in our region, the Lexington Historical Society, in particular, has gone all out. Here in Salem, we have our veteran squares, which is a lovely program, but that’s about it: we have no organization committed to collecting and interpreting local history in its entirety and in context, and I doubt there’s much money to be made from commemorating the Great War. And that’s really too bad, because the history of Salem’s homefront experience during World War I is absolutely fascinating, and worthy of note. It took me about an hour to search for these items: just imagine if someone with more intent–and more time–did so.
By far the most news generated in local papers (besides reports of troop movements) in 1917 and well into 1918 is that concerned with fundraising, including relief initiatives and the Liberty Loan program by which the federal government financed the war. These were community efforts, involving drives, parades, and all sorts of events—and press. The national posters for the Liberty Loan are amazing (so many different themes and approaches, from full-on jingoism to fear to sentimentality) and the local response equally so. The Boy Scouts were deployed in this effort, and the boys of the Salem Fraternity clearly answered the call. The “Community Chest” initiative started just before the war, and during the war 300 American cities raised charitable funds according to set goals: Salem’s goal was $34,000 a month, which I’m not sure it met, but this big “War Chest” appeared on Washington Street so the effort must have been somewhat successful! There were several relief efforts in Salem: the one which seems to have been the most active was the American Fund for Jewish War Sufferers in the various war zones of Europe and Palestine, which raised 20,000,000 over the course of the war. Mrs. Nathan Shribman, the chair of the “Relief Bazaars” through which Salem would raise its share of those funds, is below in June 2017. One really does get the impression of frenzied fundraising during the entire war, even as the flu raged in the fall of 2018.
Liberty Loan posters, 1917-1918, Library of Congress; Lining up to buy Liberty Bonds, Salem State University Archives and Special Collections; Salem Boy Scouts on Central Street during a Liberty Loan rally, October 1917, US National Archives; the War Chest on Washington Street, SSU Archives and Special Collections.
As we get into later 1917 and 1918, news from the front dominates the headlines of the Boston and Salem papers, but what happens over there always affects the home front. One of my favorite stories involves a film made by all the Salem families of soldiers in France and sent over there through the YMCA. A wonderful community effort—wish I could find it. Then there is the incredibly story of Salem’s own Ralph C. Browne, a self-taught “hitherto unknown Yankee inventor”, whose antenna firing device made possible the North Sea Mine Barrage in the closing phase of the war: local man wins the war!
Boston Globe clips, 1918.
So many soldiers. Salem has its very own Saving Private Ryan scenario with the Gibney family, who sent four sons to France and were commended for their sacrifice by President Wilson in the Spring of 2018: this was a national story. Both the Salem and the Boston papers covered the war in a very personal way, sharing as many individual stories as possible, so these are just a few Salem soldiers who experienced terrible loss, joyful reunions, and distinguished themselves with great bravery. Meanwhile, back home, Salem’s residents were supporting their efforts in myriad ways right up until the end, and the Boy Scouts were drilling on Winter Island. Many came back, some did not, but the entire city seems to have turned out for the spectacular Armistice Day parade, a century ago.
Salem 1918: just a few Salem soldiers’ experiences as reported in November, Boston Globe; the Boy Scouts drill on Winter Island, US National Archives; Armistice Day Parade, SSU Archives and Special Collections.
November 9th, 2018 at 10:26 am
I have a whole series of postcards of views of France that were brought back to Salem by my great uncle when he returned from the war.
November 9th, 2018 at 10:39 am
Oh Alan–how wonderful! Please donate them SSU or the Salem Public Library if you don’t want them to remain in your family’s possession. Not the Phillips!
November 9th, 2018 at 12:14 pm
His name was Harold C. Case – I am very close to KC – where the WWI Memorial and Museum are. I don’t imagine they are all that rare, but they are interesting views.
November 9th, 2018 at 12:48 pm
Oh, that’s a great institution I hear: big light show for the anniversary!
November 9th, 2018 at 6:04 pm
Hi Donna, thank you for another great piece. With your research and archival excavations, you are always able to bring world events down to the local experience.
Nowhere do folks take the commemoration of the bloodbath of World War I more seriously than in Britain. They have observed four years of memorials, the most dramatic being the installation of 888,246 ceramic poppies (representing the fallen) around the moat at the Tower of London in the fall of 2014. I was in London that spring, but ordered a poppy later that I hope to pass down to my grandchildren some day.
The poppy is widely displayed and frequently worn in Britain – including by Prince Harry and Megan on their recent trip “down under.” For a quick overview of the major art installation “Blood Swept Lands and Seas of Red” at the Tower of London, see below:
November 10th, 2018 at 1:39 pm
Excellent, timely piece, Donna. I hope the schools today are teaching the youngsters about the sacrifices that were made so that they can enjoy the freedoms that they have. I appreciate the effort you made in providing the names of Salem folks in particular. They are our true heroes as are all who have served in the various wars.
November 19th, 2018 at 4:19 pm
I ever knew my grandfather, butI was pleased to read that he was in a position to help Mr. Brown
“bottle up: german submarines.
November 19th, 2018 at 4:56 pm
It sounds like he was instrumental!