I am so looking forward to Halloween night next Tuesday, not only because our long municipal nightmare will be over here in Salem for another year, but also because I actually do enjoy creative Halloween costumes, and they do appear on this night, glittering like stars in a sky of more generic garb. If an entire family is going to make the trek to Salem to trick-or-treat on Chestnut Street, they will often go all out, and in years past I’ve seen the Swiss Family Robinson, The Jacksons, the Addams Family (actually I think these three were all just last year), the Coneheads, the Jetsons, and a variety of historical characters, en masse and individually. I wish there were more conceptual costumes and less inspired by popular culture but that’s probably asking for too much for a holiday that is supposed to be for and about children. The most creative (and conceptual) costumes I have ever seen were made (or proposed) for masquerades or fancy-dress parties prior to 1920 or so, after which Halloween began to emerge as a major American holiday and the witches and the pumpkin-heads pushed out the nymphs and the sprites and the various ethereal forest creatures. Costumes begin with Queens, who were entitled to prance about in court masques long before actresses were, so I’m going to begin my portfolio with the Queen of the Amazons, one of many costumes designed by Inigo Jones for Ben Jonson’s Jacobean masques, which were commissioned by King James I’s (and VI’s) Queen Anne, my vote for best–dressed Queen of all time. Jonson’s The Masque of the Queens was presented at Whitehall Palace in February of 1609, the third masque written for Anne and the first to include an “anti-masque” featuring witches, of course, the opposite of the virtuous ladies played by the Queen and her ladies. Penthesilea, the Amazonian Queen, enters first (after the witches).
Inigo Jones’ Penthesilea costume for the Masque of Queens, 1609, British Library; Thomas Rowland’s Dressing for a Masquerade, British Museum; Léon Sault’s designs for the House of Worth, 1860s: Eve with a snake and a Sorceress, Victoria & Albert Museum.
A bit less custom, and a bit more commercialized, costuming commences in the later nineteenth century: more for fancy-dress parties than for Halloween. All sort of costumes can be found in pattern books from this era, such as Jennie Taylor Wandle’s Masquerade and Carnival. Their Customs and Costumes, published by the Butterick Publishing Company in 1892. As you can see, the Halloween archetypes (devil, witch, sorceress, little and big bat) are already popular. Women’s magazine also offer up lots of fancy-dress inspiration: below are some very……naturalistic costumes from the Ladies Home Journal in 1914 and a few more conventional examples from 1920.
The transition from fancy-dress to Halloween costumes comes just around this time, 1920: I am marking it with an aptly-titled commercial publication, Dennison’s Bogie Book, issued by the Dennison Manufacturing Company of Framingham, Massachusetts in 1920. This “book of suggestions for decorating and entertaining at Hallowe’en, Harvest Time, and Thanksgiving” contains lots of instructions, indicating that we’re at a moment where traditions are being invented. Of course all you need to have the perfect Halloween are Dennison products, which all seem to be made of orange and black crepe paper. It seems like full-blown commercial Halloween is right around the corner, but yet when I look at the photograph of Batgirl, St. Ann (wow, she’s the outlier here!), and Wonder Woman from New York city photographer Larry Racciopo’s Halloween (1980), it doesn’t seem like we’ve come that far at all.
Bat Girl, St. Ann, and Wonder Woman photographed by Larry Racioppo, New York Public Library Digital Gallery.
October 26th, 2017 at 8:52 am
Happy Halloween and all that. Again, you find the most appropriate images from different archives and collections to illustrate your blog.
May I add a few words from Poe’s “Masque of Red Death” – the ultimate masquerade party?
“Be sure they were grotesque. There were much glare and glitter and piquancy and phantasm—much of what has been since seen in “Hernani.” There were arabesque figures with unsuited limbs and appointments. There were delirious fancies such as the madman fashions. There were much of the beautiful, much of the wanton, much of the bizarre, something of the terrible, and not a little of that which might have excited disgust.”
I just love Poe, particularly at this time of year…
October 26th, 2017 at 8:53 am
Poe is always appropriate!
October 26th, 2017 at 9:31 am
An absolutely awesome post, Donna!
October 26th, 2017 at 9:59 am
Thank you, Carol!
October 26th, 2017 at 9:59 am
Donna, I love this article and the illustrations! A comment you made made me recall one year when my siblings and I were all in our 20’s, we drew from the creative abilities of our parents during childhood when all our costumes were homemade and pretty unique. Anyway, this particular year we were all invited to costume parties. My brother went as a house, complete with lighted windows, doorbell and smoke coming out of the chimney. My sister went as the NBC Peacock in a stuffed body and the ability to fan her tail out on demand. I went as a loaded baked potato skin because I was a waitress at TGI Fiday’s. All 3 won 1st place prizes. I loved doing it and should get motivated again now that I live in Salem. Maybe next year……..
October 26th, 2017 at 10:01 am
Those are great costumes, Suzie–thanks for your inspiration. Smoke coming out of the chimney!
October 26th, 2017 at 3:51 pm
This motivated me to think about Halloween celebrants dressing as real-life horrors: vintage killers. But they seem such a visually unremarkable lot. Everyone would recognize Batgirl, but someone dressed as H. H. Holmes? Nah. And for many people, the image of Bonnie and Clyde they would have would not be of the real things, but from the 1967 movie, which at least has style.