Ghosts of Presidents Past

When a ghost appears, you know that something is not right: restless spirits always have a mission. Sometimes it is inspiration; sometime censure, but one always has to take notice. The relationship between the dead and the living depends on the historical context but in general, the former are often demanding something from the latter: prayers, respect, fortitude, compensation, correction. Medieval people were expected to compensate, in forms of religious ritual, for the premature, unexpected, and “bad” deaths of their dearly departed, while modern people are generally expected to learn from the spectres that haunt them, in one way or another: Dickens’ Christmas ghosts being prime examples. And then there are political ghosts, who have vast powers of assessment and judgement and can be utilized as a supreme moral compass: I don’t think it will be long before we see some of these spectral appearances! Looking through some digitized periodicals in preparation for my Presidents’ Day post last week, first very casually and then more intently, I came across quite a few presidential ghosts: Presidents Washington and Lincoln are clearly the most powerful (and summoned) apparitions, but they were not the only spirits roused from the dead because of compelling earthly concerns. In this first image from Punch (a periodical which utilizes ghosts to put forth its point of view fairly often) King George III asks George Washington what he thinks of his “fine republic” now (1863–in the midst of the Civil War), to which the President can only respond “humph!”.

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Punch, or the London Charivari, January 10, 1863.

This is an unusual presidential ghost sighting; usually we do not go to “Spirit-Land” (which appears to be populated with jellyfish as well as prominent people), spirits descend down to our realm. Much more common are these pair of cartoons commenting on the contentious election of 1884 between two scandal-ridden candidates: James G. Blaine and Grover Cleveland: The Honor of our Country in Danger (again, Puck) and The Honor of our Country Maintained (George Yost Coffin, “respectfully adapted” from the Puck cartoon). The assembled ghostly presidents Washington, Lincoln and Garfield (recently assassinated so at the height of his power) are clearly the monitors of “honor”, before and after the election. The narrow winner of this contest, Grover Cleveland, clearly needs all the spiritual guidance he can get, as the ghosts of his predecessors appear regularly throughout his term(s).

presidential-ghosts-1884-collage

presidential-ghost-cleveland

“Honor” cartoons relating to the presidential election of 1884, Library of Congress;  “The Lesson of the Past”, Puck, July 1887: Lincoln inspires Cleveland to assert “I will not fail”.

Theodore Roosevelt inspires lots of ghostly visitations too, including a whole entourage of past presidents in Puck’s July 1910 cover cartoon: “Just Luck”. Washington, Lincoln, Jefferson and Jackson wonder how did we ever run the country without him? while observing an industrious Teddy by the light of the moon. A couple of years later, however, there is a more censorious visitation by Washington when Roosevelt rescinded his pledge not to run for a third term in 1912. This Washington looks positively Dickensian!

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ghost-president-roosevelt

Just LuckcoverPuck, July, 1910; “Anti-Third-Term Principle” cartoon by Clifford Berryman, 1912, U.S. National Archives.

War-time presidents, or those on the verge of war, need lots of encouragement (as do nations), so the ultimate war-time president, Abraham Lincoln, appears behind Woodrow Wilson on the eve of World War I, and several decades later the latter returns the favor for Franklin Roosevelt. In the interim, we have a rare sighting of Warren G. Harding, wishing his successor Calvin Coolidge “Good Bye and Good Luck” and encouraging him to “write his own book”. This strikes me as a bit of over-reach for this device: did we really need to summon the ghost of Warren G. Harding?

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presidential-ghost-wilson

Ghostly back-up in 1917 and 1935, New York Times and Library of Congress; J.N. “Ding” Darling cartoon from 1923, © 1999 J.N. “Ding” Darling Foundation and Calvin Coolidge Presidential Foundation.


7 responses to “Ghosts of Presidents Past

  • Cheryl Santucci

    Hi Donna, I’m restoring a home and garden in Monson, Ma. The landscape architect on the 1925 blue prints is Herbert J. Kellaway. I would love to read your article on the architect, but I can’t find it anywhere. Thanks for any help. Love your blog.

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  • helenbreen01

    Hi Donna,

    Great job. What an interesting take on President’s Day!

    I particularly enjoyed the cartoon with George Washington and King George III (roughly contemporaries although the King would outlive the President by two decades). After the “late unpleasantness” in the colonies, the King was shocked when American born artist Benjamin West told His Majesty that Washington would retire after two terms.

    The King conceded, “If he does that, he will be the greatest man in the world.” So be it.

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    • daseger

      I know; that was a powerful statement and precedent. I first perceived this cartoon to be rather demeaning to Washington–not a small man though presented as smaller than the King. Then I realized that George III was quite tall too–once source says 6’6″!

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  • Brian Bixby

    I wonder if visits to the spirit realm were more common while Spiritualism was in vogue, with its frequent communications and depictions of the “Summerland.”

    The Shakers had communications with Washington and some other Founding Fathers during their spiritualist revival beginning in 1837. I believe Ben Franklin admitted to becoming a Shaker in the afterlife.

    As for Harding, his death was so sudden and somewhat mysterious to contemporaries, which would qualify him for ghosthood: unfinished business. Though one imagines Coolidge greeted the ghost with his customary reticence of speech. The occasion would fit Mencken’s description of Coolidge having a “necrotic sense of humor.”

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    • daseger

      Wow–lots of information in this comment, Brian, as usual! I did wonder about spiritualism but decided I would go down a rabbit hole if I ventured into that realm so decided to keep this post pretty political/superficial. All of those spirit photographs and Lincoln sightings!

      Liked by 1 person

  • In lumina

    […] via Ghosts of Presidents Past — streetsofsalem […]

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