Faithful readers of this blog will know that I am captivated by the Remonds, an African-American family of ten who lead exemplary lives of advocacy, activism and entrepreneurialism in Salem in the nineteenth-century, often centered around Hamilton Hall, the Federal reception hall right next door to my house. I feel very connected to them and I’m interested in everything they did. The parents, John and Nancy, clearly raised their children to be independent and assertive, and were both independent and assertive themselves. The most public, and therefore most well-known, Remonds were the abolitionist speakers Charles Lenox and Sarah Parker, and while I have the utmost admiration for them they have their historians, while their siblings do not. There are also no photographs (in the public realm anyway) of the other Remonds, so we don’t “see” them. So I’ve been collecting as much information as possible about the “invisible” Remonds, and I thought I would cap off my year of #salemsuffragesaturdays with a spotlight on the amazing life of the youngest member of this distinguished family, Caroline Remond Putnam (1826-1908). She’s one of the most impressive women I have ever encountered. The closest I can get to her is her signature, sadly: on a petition against capital punishment signed when she was a teenager, on a letter addressed to Wendell Phillips sent from London (both from the digital collections of Harvard), on her passport application in 1865.
Even without an archive of personal papers to elucidate her life, it’s easy to see that Caroline was a very engaged woman: the advertisements for her businesses fill the pages of the Salem Register; her efforts towards abolition are referenced in successive issues of The Liberator. As the youngest Remond child, she had several examples to follow as every family member was busy: in business and in reform causes, or both. Her parents managed to enroll her older sister Sarah and Caroline in the Salem public schools, from which they were expelled for no cause other than their race, prompting the relocation of the family to Newport, Rhode Island. The Remonds returned to Salem when the girls’ schooling was complete, and to their several businesses. Caroline began working in hairdressing in partnership with several of her sisters, and on her own, and in the late 1840s she married Joseph H. Putnam of Boston, whose family was part of the African-American network of entrepreneur activists which extended to Philadelphia. Caroline never stopped working: as a personal hairstylist, as the owner of a Salem salon and wig factory called the Ladies Hair Work Salon with her sisters, and as the manufacturer of the popular “Mrs. Putnam’s Medicated Hair Tonic” for hair loss. She and Joseph had two children, Edmund and Victoria, but tragedy struck in 1859 when Caroline lost both her husband and her baby daughter within three months. Her reaction was to leave: she booked passage for Britain for herself and her young son Edmund to join her sister Sarah, and there are no indications that she planned to come back to the United States. But she did: back and forth across the Atlantic she went over the next 20 years or so, sometimes with a sister, often with Edmund. She came back because she had a lot to do: she had her businesses, and had assumed major leadership roles, chiefly in the realm of fundraising, for the American and Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Societies. After the Civil War she shifted her efforts towards the suffrage movement and the American, New England, and Massachusetts Woman Suffrage Associations, and was always recognized as a “well-known advocate” of the cause. Caroline clearly had many obligations in the United States, but she returned to Europe several times in the 1870s and eventually joined her sister Sarah in Italy (where she managed a hotel in Rome!) in the mid-1880s and then made a permanent move to England, where she died in 1908.
Abolition, Suffrage AND Pacifism: Caroline had big goals, and that characteristic Remond mix of activism and pragmatism regarding business matters.
It’s rather sad to see someone work so hard for the greater good in a country, and be so eager to leave it: after Frederick Douglass visited the Remond sisters (Caroline and Sarah, plus Maritcha) in Rome he reported that “they detest prejudice of color and say they would not live in the U. States, if you could or would give them America!” These sentiments were grounded in experience. Caroline experienced at least three cases of very public discrimination: she was with Sarah at the Howard Athenaeum in Boston in 1853 when they were ejected from their seats, on her first Atlantic crossing in 1859 she and her young son were barred from the first-class cabins in the Cunard liner Europa for which she had purchased tickets, and on a trip to New York City in 1870 her reservations for rooms at the Metropolitan Hotel were not honored. I’m sure these were just three public instances out of many more private ones. But still she pressed on, always trying to create a better world for herself, her family, her gender, her race, and pretty much everyone else.
December 26th, 2020 at 10:09 am
Dear Donna, thank you for another fascinating story about the Remond family. I am intrigued by them as well, especially since they accomplished so much in the face of severe prejudice. So the parents are John and Nancy, and the children I know of are Charles Lenox, Sarah Parker, Caroline, and Maritza. Do you know the names of the other siblings or if there are any living descendants? Also, where did the family live in Salem? Are they buried in Harmony Grove by any chance? Thank you so much for bringing Salem history to light!
December 26th, 2020 at 10:52 am
Hello Katherine, there’s an overview of the Remonds in my previous post called “The Worldly Remonds of Salem” and a presentation I narrated for Hamilton Hall available here: https://www.hamiltonhall.org/remond. The Hall has been very focused on spotlighting the Remonds’ story! The family in various places in Salem: first in the Hall itself, later at Higginson Square and on Pond Street, and the Remond children had other residences as well. Several members, including partriarch John and Charles Lenox, are buried at Harmony Grove. There’s really a lot more to learn about each and every one of the Remonds, and their descendants are in touch with Hamilton Hall and eager to bring more info about their amazing family to light.
December 26th, 2020 at 12:56 pm
Great Post. Sarah and Caroline confronted a painful reality in Europe and Britain as well. Below is an excerpt from Caroline’s sister, Sarah Remond, when she gave a speech at the Manchester (England) Athanaeum.
“For the slave there is no home, no hope, no help; When I walk through the streets of Manchester and meet load after load of cotton, I think of those 80,000 cotton plantations on which was grown the $125m worth of cotton which supply your market, and I remember that not one cent of that money ever reached the hands of the labourers.”
I note that the granddaughter of Winthrop Sargent of Gloucester and Mississippi, also died in London in 1912. Mary Sargent Duncan had claimed ownership of hundreds of slaves in Louisiana and Mississippi, and then married the son of the largest slaveholder in the nation. During the Civil War, while she lived near New York City, and her husband worked for the precursor to JP Morgan Bank, she protested to General Grant and President Lincoln that their “hired hands” should be left alone on her family’s nine plantations. They asked what could be done for this agreeable lady. An investigation at one of her plantations found the “workers” starving, in rags, “conditions could not be worse.” “One negro man…concealed himself in a swamp for ten days for the opportunity to escape to our lines, but was detected, put in stocks and severely whipped.”
Before the War, Mary Sargent Duncan commissioned the sculpter Hiram Powers to model her image after his famous Greek Slave. Over the months of work, she made sure he corrected her features to her satisfaction. A believer in phrenology, she saw her features as a measure of her goodness (none evident, just cruelty–even her father said there were ice springs in heart) and intelligence (considerable). After the Civil War, she took a many -years long sojourn in Europe with her immense wealth.
The Hiram Powers bust of Mary is on display at the Sargent House Museum in Gloucester. There, one might also see the portraits of Mary’s grandfather, Winthrop–Judith Sargent Murray’s adored brother, and a miniature of her father, George Washington Sargent, Winthrop’s son. For a few years, Gloucester-raised Winthrop Sargent served as the Governor of the Mississippi Territories, but for the majority of his life, as approved by his sister, Judith Sargent Murray, he was “a gentleman planter.” His sons and stepsons, inlaws, and grandchildren, profited from forced, free labor as long as they could.
One wonders if the Remond sisters ever crossed paths with high-society Mary in Florence, Rome, or London.
December 26th, 2020 at 5:25 pm
That’s an interesting question, Lise: American expat communities in the 19th century always seem small to me, but of course color lines were seldom crossed.